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How To Write An Executive Summary And What It Is Useful For

    Girl in blue jeans and blue top writing a summary on a book in front of a sliver laptop in her living room.

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    Executive summaries are essential in the business world, especially in cases where the executives, management teams, or investors have limited time to go through detailed reports. This document aims to provide a brief overview of a project, proposal, or report, allowing decision-makers to grasp the most critical information at a glance.

    Here we’ll explore the key elements of an effective executive summary, when to use it, and how to write one that will capture the attention of the reader.

    What is an Executive Summary

    An executive summary is a brief overview of a longer document, such as a business plan, report, or proposal. Its purpose is to provide busy stakeholders with a concise summary of the most important information in a way that is easy to understand. An executive summary should capture the essence of the longer document and highlight the key findings, recommendations, and conclusions.

    When to Use an Executive Summary

    An executive summary is useful in many business situations. For example, it can be used to update senior executives or management teams on the progress of a project or to pitch a new business idea to investors. It can also be used to summarize the findings of a research report or to introduce a product or service to potential customers.

    There are several situations where an executive summary can be useful:

    Providing an overview of a longer document: Executive summaries are commonly used to summarize a lengthy report or business plan.

    To highlight key information: They can be used to highlight the most important information from a meeting, presentation, or event.

    Introducing a new idea: They can be used to introduce a new product or service, or to pitch a business idea to potential investors.

    Key Elements of a Good Executive Summary

    A good executive summary should include the following key elements:

    Clear and Concise Problem Statement: The problem statement should clearly define the problem and explain why it is important. It should be concise and to the point, avoiding industry jargon and technical terms.

    Summary of Findings: The executive summary should provide a summary of the key findings, including any data or research that supports the findings.

    Recommendations: The executive summary should include recommendations based on the findings. These recommendations should be actionable and specific.

    Conclusion: The executive summary should include a clear and concise conclusion that summarizes the key points.

    People at work around a white table looming at a large monitor.

    How to Write an Executive Summary

    To write an effective executive summary, follow these steps:

    Read the document carefully: Before writing the executive summary, read the entire document carefully and make notes of the key findings and recommendations.

    Identify the target audience: Consider who will be reading the executive summary and tailor the language and content to their needs.

    Write a clear problem statement: The problem statement should be clear, concise, and specific.

    Summarize the key findings: Identify the most important findings and summarize them in a way that is easy to understand.

    Provide actionable recommendations: Provide specific recommendations based on the findings.

    Write a conclusion: Write a clear and concise conclusion that summarizes the key points.

    Example Executive Summaries

    Here are some example executive statements that you can use in different business situations:

    Executive Summary for a Business Plan

    The following business plan outlines the strategy for launching a new mobile app aimed at improving productivity for small business owners. Through extensive market research, we have identified a significant need for a comprehensive productivity app that streamlines essential tasks and increases efficiency. Our app will provide a user-friendly platform for managing tasks, scheduling appointments, and accessing important business documents. We have a talented team of developers and advisors in place, and our funding is secured for the initial development and launch phases. With a strong focus on user experience and value proposition, we believe our app has significant potential to disrupt the market and generate substantial returns for our investors.

    Executive Summary for a Marketing Report

    This report outlines the results of a comprehensive marketing campaign conducted by our team for a new line of premium skincare products. Through targeted digital advertising, social media engagement, and influencer partnerships, we were able to generate significant brand awareness and drive sales conversions. Our analysis of consumer feedback and engagement metrics indicates a high level of satisfaction with the product quality and messaging. Additionally, we have identified opportunities for further growth and market expansion through continued content creation and influencer collaborations. Overall, the campaign exceeded our expectations and resulted in a significant boost to brand equity and sales revenue.

    Executive Summary for a Research Paper

    This paper presents the results of a study examining the impact of social media usage on mental health outcomes among young adults. Our analysis of survey data collected from a diverse sample of college students indicates a strong correlation between excessive social media use and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Additionally, we found that social comparison and cyberbullying were significant predictors of negative mental health outcomes. Our findings suggest the need for increased public awareness and education around responsible social media use and the development of targeted interventions to mitigate the negative effects on mental health.

    Example PowerPoint Executive Summary

    Slide 1: Supply Chain Disruption

    Slide 2: Employee Retention

    Slide 3: Customer Service Complaints

    Making Your Executive Summaries Concise

    An effective executive summary should be concise and to the point. Use the following tips to ensure that your executive summary is brief yet informative:

    1. Use short sentences and paragraphs.
    2. Avoid technical jargon and industry-specific terms.
    3. Use active voice instead of passive voice.
    4. Remove any unnecessary information.
    5. Stick to the main points of the report, proposal, or project.


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    How to Write a Specialized Executive Summary

    There are certain situations where a standard executive summary may not be sufficient, and a specialized approach is needed. Here are some scenarios where a specialized executive summary might be necessary:

    1. Technical or Scientific Reports: If you are presenting a report on a technical or scientific subject, you may need to use specialized terminology that is not familiar to a general audience. In this case, it is important to provide explanations and definitions of any technical terms used in the executive summary. Additionally, it is important to focus on the most important findings and conclusions of the report in a clear and concise manner.
    2. Grant Proposals: When submitting a grant proposal, you may need to provide an executive summary that outlines your proposed research project. In this case, it is important to highlight the significance of your research question and how your proposed study will fill a gap in the existing research. It is also important to provide a brief overview of your methodology, including how you plan to conduct your research and what outcomes you hope to achieve.
    3. Legal Documents: In the case of legal documents such as contracts, it may be necessary to provide an executive summary that outlines the key terms and conditions of the agreement. This can help ensure that all parties have a clear understanding of the agreement and can help avoid any potential misunderstandings.

    When writing a specialized executive summary, it is important to keep in mind your audience and their level of understanding of the subject matter. Use clear and concise language and avoid using jargon or technical terms that your audience may not be familiar with. Provide explanations and definitions where necessary and focus on the most important findings or conclusions of the report or document.

    What Not to do When Writing Executive Summaries

    While there are best practices for writing an effective executive summary, there are also common mistakes that should be avoided. Here are some of the things to avoid when writing an executive summary:

    1. Don’t include unnecessary information: Your executive summary should only include the most important and relevant information. Don’t waste space with unnecessary details or fluff.
    2. Don’t make it too long: Executive summaries are meant to be brief, so don’t make it too long. Stick to the key points and keep it concise.
    3. Don’t use technical jargon: Avoid using technical jargon or industry-specific terms that may be unfamiliar to your audience. If you must use technical terms, be sure to explain them in simple language.
    4. Don’t leave out important information: While you want to keep your executive summary concise, make sure you include all the key information. Leaving out important details can lead to confusion and misunderstandings.
    5. Don’t forget the call to action: Your executive summary should end with a clear call to action. What do you want the reader to do next? Make sure it’s clear and actionable.

    By avoiding these common mistakes, you can ensure that your executive summary is clear, concise, and effective.

    Businesswoman in grey suit inside an office holding a white folder.

    Best Practices for Writing an Executive Summary

    Here are some additional points to consider:

    Customize your executive summary: While there are general principles that apply to executive summaries, it’s important to remember that each summary should be customized to the specific situation. Consider the audience, the purpose of the summary, and the context in which it will be presented.

    Consider the design: In addition to the content of the executive summary, the design can also have an impact on its effectiveness. Use headings, bullet points, and visual aids to break up the text and make the information more digestible. Consider using colors and graphics to highlight important points.

    Get feedback: Before finalizing your executive summary, it’s a good idea to get feedback from others. Share the summary with colleagues or advisors and ask for their input. They may be able to identify areas that need clarification or suggest improvements to the overall structure.

    Keep it up to date: Finally, remember that an executive summary is only useful if it accurately reflects the current state of affairs. Be sure to update your summary regularly to reflect any changes or new developments in the project or business.

    By following these additional tips, you can ensure that your executive summary is not only effective but also customized, visually appealing, and up to date.


    An executive summary is a concise and well-crafted summary of a larger report or document, providing an overview of the most important information and key findings. It is a valuable tool for communicating complex information to project teams and senior executives or management.

    When writing an executive summary, it is important to focus on the key elements of a good problem statement, including a clear definition of the problem and a concise explanation of why it is important. Following a structured approach, such as the one outlined in this article, can help ensure that the executive summary is well-organized, easy to read, and impactful.

    To make your executive summaries effective, it is important to keep them concise and easy to understand. This can be achieved by using short sentences, avoiding technical terms and industry jargon, and using an active voice. It is also important to avoid common mistakes, such as including unnecessary details or failing to clearly define the problem.

    In some situations, a specialized executive summary may be needed, which deviates from the standard format. This may be necessary for reports in highly technical fields or when dealing with highly sensitive or confidential information.

    In summary, an executive summary is a powerful tool that can help you communicate complex information effectively to a variety of stakeholders. By following the key principles and best practices outlined in this article, you can ensure that your executive summaries are well-crafted, concise, and impactful, helping you achieve your business objectives with greater efficiency and clarity.

    Shaun Mendonsa, PhD is an influencing expert and pharmaceutical development leader. He writes on the topics of influence and persuasion, and develops next generation drugs in human pharma by advising international pharmaceutical CROs and CMOs. He can be reached at [email protected].


    Executive Summary, Business Writing, Leadership Tips, Problem Statement, Business Communication, Decision Making

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